|White refined sugar has become the most common form of Sugar. Refined sugar can be made by dissolving raw sugar and purifying it with a phosphoric acid method similar to that used for blanco directo, a carbonatation process involving calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide, or by various filtration strategies. It is then further decolorized by filtration through a bed of activated carbon. White refined sugar is typically sold as granulated sugar, which has been dried to prevent clumping.Granulated sugar comes in various crystal sizes. These different sizes are used at home and industry and depend on the application.Although we can supply any available grade sugar, we specialiss in supplying ICUMSA 45 grade, which is the most popular for general use.|
|WHITE REFINED SUGARSpecifications:
Commodity shall be free from mold, unnatural odors, chemicals, and insects.
|RAW BROWN CANESpecifications:
Commodity shall be free from mold, unnatural odors, chemicals, and insects.
SPECIFICATIONS FOR ICUMSA 45:
|ICUMSA:||WHITE REFINED CANE SUGAR ICUMSA 45|
|SPECIFICATION:||FIT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION|
|POLARIZATION:||99,80 % MINIMUM|
|SULPHATEASH CONTENT:||00.04% MAXIMUM|
|GRANULATION:||MEDIUM TO FINE|
|SOLUBILITY:||100% DRY AND FREE FLOWING|
|RADIATION:||NORMAL W/O PRESENCE OF CESIUM OR IODINE, CERTIFIED|
|COLOR:||SPARKLING WHITE. MAXIMUM, 45 ICUMSA|
|SMELL:||FREE OFANY ODOR|
|REDUCING SUGAR:||0.05% MAXIMUM BY WEIGHT|
|SO2:||20 PPM MAXIMUM|
|MAGNETIC PARTICLES:||MG/KG MAXIMUM|
|MAX AS:||1 PPM|
|MAX PS:||2 PPM|
|MAX CU:||3 PPM|
|HPN STAPH AUREUS:||NIL|
|FREE FROM:||MOLD, UNNATURAL ODORS, CHEMICALS AND INSECTS|
|SEED/HUSKS:||OF NO RADIATION, NO VIRUS, INSECT PARTS, NO POISONOUS MATTER AND NON GENETIC AND IS SUITABLE FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION|
Raw sugar is the product from which refined sugars are made. It is also consumed in some parts of the world as a foodstuff in its own right. The bulk of the world’s sugar exports are made up of raw sugar, the most notable exporter of raw sugar being Brazil, which exports VHP raw sugar in massive amounts, often exceeding twenty million tons, every year.
Extracting Raw Sugar
Raw sugar is extracted from sugar cane or sugar beet. Sugar cane is the primary source of raw sugar, as it is the most commonly grown sugar source in the world. Sugar cane grows well in tropical and subtropical climates, such as those in Brazil, India, and Thailand. Brazil and India are the world’s top two sugar producing nations in the world, and Thailand is the world’s second largest sugar exporting nation. Sugar beet is grown as a sugar source in countries which have less clement weather, such as Russia, which refines all its domestic sugar from sugar beet.
The ways in which sugar is extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet are quite different. Sugar cane is harvested in the field, then taken to the mill, where the leaves are stripped (if they have not already been burned off before harvesting), and the cane is washed. The cane is then shredded and chopped before being fed through mills which crush it, squeezing the sucrose rich juice out of the cells of the cane.
The sugar cane juice is then fed into a tank, where excess pieces of cane which slipped through with the juice are skimmed off the top of the juice. What happens next depends on whether or not the sugar is to be processed into VHP sugar (very high pol sugar), or if it is simply to be raw sugar. Some mills simply boil the juice to concentrate the sugar, then allow it to cool. The sucrose in the sugar crystallizes, along with glucose, fructose, minerals, and a fair amount of biological contaminants, and is then sold to refineries which refine it further.
Sugar beets are harvested from the fields, washed, and then sliced very thinly. Unlike sugar cane, they are not crushed, but are fed into a machine called a hot water diffuser. The hot water diffuser streams hot water past the slices of sugar beet, dissolving the sucrose in the beet flesh, and carrying it away for processing.
Extracting sugar crystals from sugar beet is done in the same way as with sugar cane, the juice is boiled and allowed to crystallize into raw brown sugar.
VHP Raw Sugar
VHP raw sugar is processed more than normal raw sugar. As with normal raw sugar, the raw sugar juice is boiled and allowed to crystallize, but it is then sent into a centrifugal chamber, which drives off the liquid content, or molasses, and leaves light brown sugar crystals behind. These sugar crystals have far less contamination in them than normal raw sugar, and overall the sugar produced by this process has a nice high sucrose content. VHP sugar is defined as being sugar with sucrose content of 99.4 % or more.
The molasses from this first cycle of processing is called first molasses, and it retains a relatively high sucrose content. This first molasses can be sold as is, or in many cases it will be processed once more, producing more sugar, known as ‘B’ sugar, and second molasses, which is much more bitter in flavor due to the reduced sugar content.
The process is repeated one more time, yielding ‘C’ sugar, and final, or ‘blackstrap’ molasses. Blackstrap molasses is popular amongst health food aficionados, vegetarians, and pregnant women, as it contains concentrated amounts of iron, not to mention magnesium, potassium, and calcium.
The ‘B’ and ‘C’ sugar is then dissolved into solution and processed one more time in order to produce more VHP sugar.The TU is heavily dependent upon “ash points”, which are defined as “Conductivity ash, % , expressed to three decimal places” (British Sugar Corp., Central Laboratory, ICUMSA Headquarters). Further used to weight the TU is “reflectance Grade Colour” and “Solution Colour” or “Filtered Colour” as it is referred to, which have formulas for determination equally confusing as the one for “Ash Points”. Thus, as you see, this is not easily understood by the novice.
VHP sugar was invented in 1993 by Brazilian sugar scientists, and is now the most popular raw sugar export in the world. This is because buyers get more sugar per shipment when they purchase VHP, due to the fact that it has such a high sucrose content. It is also easier and quicker to refine than other sugars, and the bulk of ICUMSA 45 refined sparkling white sugar is made from VHP raw sugar for this reason.
Consumable Raw Sugar
Most raw sugar is not consumable, however there are certain types of raw sugars which are consumed in various regions throughout the world, and sometimes even in developed countries. The raw consumable sugars which are approved for sale in developed countries are purified before being sold to the consumer, so they are safe to eat even though they have not been refined.
Three of the most popular forms of consumable raw sugar in the developed world are Demerara sugar, Muscovado sugar, and Turbinado sugar. These are all unique sugars which differing tastes, textures, and applications.
Demerara sugar is a sugar hailing from Guyana. It has lovely large golden crystals and a toffee like taste that has made it exceedingly popular for use in hot drinks such as tea and coffee. Demerara sugar is produced from the freshly crushed juice of sugar cane, and is not separated from the molasses, which is what causes it to be full of flavor, not to mention healthy minerals.
Muscovado sugar is a very dark brown crumbly sugar with a high moisture content. Muscovado sugar is a product of Barbados, and is hugely popular in baking for both the rich flavor it imparts, and the extra moistness it brings to baked goods. Muscovado sugar is produced by baking cane juice, then purifying it with coconut milk or lime juice.
Turbinado sugar is a large grain raw sugar similar to Demerara sugar, but with a darker color and higher moisture content. Turbinado sugar is also a very popular condiment in coffee and tea because of its unique flavor and aesthetically pleasing appearance.
Buyers should know that Brazil is a large sugar producer (over 36 million tons in 2009), but with very low production of white refined, Icumsa 45 (near 1.5 million tons/year). We should also know that this sugar is disputed by more than 20 large traders. To fulfil the need of sugar producers for finance and security, sugar is traded before production. Therefore, third parties, new comers, will not be able to get large quantities. Most Icumsa 45 is committed in advance to those traders. So, random offers, like 100,000 mt, and more. Most Brazilian sugar for export is raw brown (VHP), for the refineries to produce Icumsa 45. Brazil also exports large volumes of white crystal sugar, Icumsa 150 (which is perfect for human consumption).
Brazilian sugar is perhaps the most well known type of sugar in the world. As the biggest sugar exporteron the planet, Brazil produces around thirty million tons of sugar every year, and exports two thirds of that to various countries.
Brazilian sugar is grown in two major regions in Brazil, the larger of these is the Sao Paulo region. Located in the center south of the country, it is known for its vast fertile plains, much of which have been turned over to sugar cane production over the past decades as sugar has become an increasingly viable crop, and as interest in sugar ethanol as a form of alternate fuel has also grown.
The other major growing region is in the northern states of Pernambuco and Algolas. Though these states are much less fertile and boast rugged terrain which is not nearly as well suited to the cultivation of sugar cane, they are the historical home of sugar production in Brazil. They are also the main regions of expansion, as the Sao Paulo region recently cut permits for new sugar mills in that jurisdiction due to environmental concerns, leaving would be developers to seek other regions in which to build their mills.
Global demand for sugar has continued to increase over the years, with population growth and the growing popularity of the Western style diet accounting for much of this growth. Production has also increased in many countries, and India in particular is now a solid rival to Brazil in the production stakes, though its exports are significantly lower than Brazil’s.
The great majority of Brazil’s sugar exports are in the form of VHP raw sugar, a raw sugar product that has undergone some processing to increase its polarity. VHP raw sugar contains no less than 99.4% sucrose, is a light brown color, and is in great demand by refineries around the world. VHP raw sugar is a Brazilian invention, created in 1993 as an answer to the inherent inefficiency of carting large amounts of raw sugar around the world only to lose a great deal of it to the refining process due to the fact that so much of it was made up of liquids and contaminants. Refineries soon saw the benefits to using a high sucrose raw material instead of traditional raw sugar, and the Brazilian sugar industry went from strength to strength after its invention.
Brazil’s domination of the global sugar market has arisen through both agricultural prowess, technical innovation, and an emphasis on research and development. Though other countries, such as India, are now beginning to approach Brazil in production levels, they still lag behind the sugar giant in terms of growing practices, production quality, and biochemical prowess.
Brazil has always placed great importance on researching sugar, and even went so far as to sequence the sugar cane genome. As a result of this, and other related endeavors, there are now hundreds of different strains of sugar cane in Brazil. These strains have been designed for greater sucrose yield, for more successive generations of growth (sugar cane is usually left to grow for several generations, being harvested each season by cutting off the cane, but leaving the roots to grow again and again in successive seasons until the sucrose content of the newly grown cane dips below acceptable levels, or the roots become too damaged to grow healthy sugar cane, at which point the field is tilled and fresh cane sown), and to grow in difficult conditions.
Equal attention has been paid to the physical processes associated with milling sugar cane and refining sugar. Most Brazilian sugar mills have efficiency teams whose job it is to streamline and economize all processes in the plant. Recycling is also a high priority, with the sugar cane fiber often burned to power the facility. So efficient are Brazilian mills that they often manage to sell power onto the national grid because the burning of the bagasse (a name given to the fibrous part of the sugar cane discarded after crushing) provides more than enough energy to power the plant.
Underlying a multi billion dollar sugar industry is ahumble grass commonly known as sugar cane. In spite of the fact that it quite often grows well over six feet high unlike the lawn grasses it is related to, sugar cane is indeed a grass, in fact, the term ‘sugar cane’ encompasses a genus of grasses which is comprised of thirty six different species. Within these species, sugar producing nations (Brazil in particular) have bred various sugar cane strains to suit varying growing conditions and the production of specific products. Hybrid strains of sugar cane are the back bone of not only the sugar industry, but also the sugar ethanol industry, sugar ethanol being a widely used and highly viable alternative fuel derived from sugar cane.
The History of Sugar Cane
A native of tropical countries such as India and New Guinea, sugar cane developed in several different nations simultaneously, with different strains of sugar cane being successful in different regions. There is some argument over where sugar cane was first cultivated intentionally for the purposes of producing sugar, however there are records of sugar in India as far back as 3000 BCE.
Sugar cane traveled along with Buddhism from India to China in the 7th century CE, and the Chinese quickly became adept at cultivating sugar cane and making sugar. For a very long time, sugar cane, and sugar were known only in the eastern countries. Sugar cane was taken to the Middle East and Africa by traveling Arabian people, but it was not until the Crusades that this miraculous plant became widely known in the West. At first, both sugar cane and sugar were a rare commodity for westerners, and at one stage it was even said that sugar was more expensive than gold in London.
With the discovery of sugar cane by western populations, sugar cane plantations were eventually established in many British colonies, particularly Carribean ones. African slaves were used to work the plantations and the boiling houses in which sugar cane was processed into sugar.
The Dutch bought sugar cane to Brazil, and also used African slaves to man the first plantations and boiling houses, which were established in the northern regions of the country. Today Brazil is the world’s largest producer of sugar cane and sugar cane products, and many plantations, mills, and refineries are still operating in the northern regions of Brazil, though nowadays the labor is, of course, paid.
Growing Sugar Cane
Sugar cane is planted by hand, not from seed, but from cuttings called “setts”. These setts are half a meter to one and a half meters long, and have several buds growing along their lengths. When planted horizontally in furrows, watered and fertilized, these setts send up shoots within a few weeks. Each of the shoots is a new stalk of sugar cane.
Sugar cane requires a great deal of water to grow well, and does not take kindly to cold temperatures, infertile soils, or harsh chemicals. Though hardier strains have been developed, ideal growing conditions are flat, fertile soil with plenty of nutrients in a tropical or sub tropical climate.
If the setts are not disturbed during harvesting, and are well maintained, they can continue to grow for up to twelve harvests, though three to five is a more typical number. After the first few harvests, damage and old age begins to take its toll, and the new shoots are not as healthy or as rich in sucrose as the ones before them. It is at this stage that the whole field will often be ploughed, and new setts planted.
Harvesting Sugar Cane
When it comes time to harvest the sugar cane, one of two methods can be used. In some cases, human laborers work the fields, cutting the sugar cane off low to the ground and bundling the stalks up for their trip to the sugar mill. The work is back breaking and difficult, and good workers are worth their weight in gold to owners of sugar cane crops. Because sugar cane regrows after it is harvested, it is essential that the roots not be damaged when the cane is harvested. Clumsy workers can quickly destroy an entire field of sugar cane, costing the owner thousands of dollars or more.
When human labor is used to harvest sugar cane, it is not uncommon for the field to first be burnt. The flames quickly consume excess foliage, leaving just the stalks ready for harvesting. This is a safety measure for the workers, as it kills any poisonous snakes that may have been living in the field and it also makes it easier for the harvesters to see what they are doing without the visual impediment of dense leafy foliage to contend with, which cuts down on accidents considerably.
Another option is to harvest sugar cane using a machine. Large mechanical harvesters can travel up and down a field, harvesting the cane, stripping it of unwanted leaves, and bundling it tidily in the back of the harvester. Naturally there are some obvious advantages to this method, only one labourer needs to be paid, the harvester does not require meals or a place to sleep at night, and will not need a break every hour or two.
Fortunately for labourers who in many countries depend on the yearly harvesting season to make money, mechanical harvesters also come with their fair share of problems. To begin with, they are not very well suited to operation on uneven surfaces. Fields need to be flat in order for a mechanical harvester to be truly effective. Also, mechanical harvesters have been known to cause damage to the underlying roots by either harvesting the cane too roughly, or by crushing them under their heavy tires. Machines also require petrol, which is becoming an increasingly pricey commodity.
Processing Sugar Cane
After harvesting, sugar cane is processed at the sugar mill by washing the stalks, then shredding them with very sharp blades. Once the stalks are shredded, they are put through rollers to squeeze the juice out of them. What emerges from this process is a dark brown high sucrose juice commonly known as “raw juice”, and the dry sugar cane fiber known as ‘bagasse’.
Sugar Cane Products
Sugar cane is a deceptively versatile material, useful for making a wide range of products. Sugar, is of course an obvious one, and sugar ethanol has been growing steadily in popularity as a global fuel crisis sends nations looking for ways to wean themselves of a dependency on oil.
Sugar Cane Bagasse
For a long time, Bagasse was simply discarded and burned in the fields as a waste product. Nowadays bagasse finds a plethora of applications, both in the sugar mill and out of it. Many mills now burn the bagasse resulting from their sugar cane milling operations in the mill itself, and use the resulting heat to generate electricity which powers the mill. So much energy can be made in this fashion that it is not uncommon for there to be a surplus of power, which is then very often sold onto the national grid, making the sugar mill incredibly energy efficient.
Bagasse is also used as charcoal. Charcoaled bagasse is a clean burning product that provides a great deal of heat at a relatively low cost. It is easily stored, and can keep for much longer than traditional charcoal briquettes.
Some manufacturers are exploring uses of Bagasse in disposable tableware. When pressed into cups and plates, Bagasse makes for a strong, relatively durable product which can stand heat and moisture, and which biodegrades entirely in just a few months, making it an obvious choice for anyone concerned with the impact of traditional disposable dinnerware materials such as plastic and polystyrene. Bagasse tableware is also entirely freezer and microwave safe, making it much more convenient and versatile than traditional materials.
A byproduct of the sugar refining process, molasses is used in everything from animal feed to health supplements. It has a sweet/bitter taste, and is full of healthy minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, and iron. There are many different grades of molasses, some suitable only for animal feed, and others quite suitable for human consumption.
Sugar an important food also commonly known as sucrose is white crystalline substance, tastes sweet, a carbohydrate and 100% soluble in water. Sugar (Sucrose) is a natural combination of fructose and glucose. It is very stable product.
CHEMICAL FORMULA FOR SUGAR:
12CO2 + 11H2O = C12 H22 O11 + 12 O2
TYPES OF SUGAR:
Raw Refined Crystal
Muscavado Demerara Caster
Icing Premium Liquid Sugar Fine Liquid Sugar
Invert White Crystal Refined – Fine Granulated
RAW MATERIALS FOR SUGAR:
Sugar Cane — a large tropical grass
Other items used are Corn (only used for sweeteners)
HOW IS SUGAR MADE?
Raw Sugar is made in large refineries by crushing cane sugar (Sachrum officenarum) or beet root (Beta vulgaris) to obtain juice and boiling this juice to remove water and processing the juice so obtained to make unrefined raw sugar. This is sometimes also known as panela. Generally cane sugar is produced by tropical countries and the beet sugar by the cold/European areas.
COUNTRY OF ORIGIN:
Australia Brazil Colombia Cuba
India Indonesia Pakistan Poland
Turkey Mexico Russia UK
USA West Indies Others
WORLD’S SUGAR PRODUCTION:
The world at the moment is annually producing about 133 million tonnes. There are 110 countries involved in its production. It is estimated that 25 million tonnes is dumped on the world market below the market price.
PACKING FOR SUGAR:
Sugar can be packed in minute sachets of 10 grams to 50kg or even larger packing sizes. Popular packed sizes are 500gms, 1kg, 2kg, 12.5kg, 25 kg and 50 kg.
We supply Brazilian White Crystal Cane Sugar ICUMSA 45 and in raw form
Our Sources are some of the largest Sugar Producers in Brazil.
Packing: in 50 KG seaworthy bags, in Big Bags, Sling Bags, Palletized or in Bulk.
- Product Type:
- Processing Type:
45, 100, 150, 600-1200, 800-1200
- Brix (%):
- Purity (%):
SGS OR EQUIVALENT
- Weight (kg):
- Shelf Life:
- Place of Origin:
- Brand Name:
- Model Number:
- EXTRAWHITE REFINED:
What is the meaning of ICUMSA and to what does it relate?” In order to attempt to help, let me quote the following from the ICUMSA Handbook:
- “ICUMSA (International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis) is a world-wide body which brings together the activities of the National Committees for Sugar Analysis in more than thirty member countries. Work is carried out under various Subject headings, each headed by a Referee.Methods are recommended for tentative approval by ICUMSA in the first instance. Upon meeting all of the Commission’s requirements, methods are accorded official status. Methods which are demonstrably useful and have found an established application, or which do not lend themselves to collaborative testing are given an Accepted status”
- An ICUMSA rating is an international unit for expressing the purity of the sugar in solution, and is directly related to the colour of the sugar. Be aware that there are different types of ICUMSA units. For Brazilian sugar, the lower the ICUMSA figure the whiter the sugar. However, this is not the case in the E.U. for some unknown reason, which has been the subject of much discussion.
The only sure method is to be first totally versed in sugar as a starting point and understanding these differences. Next, although many brokers use the term ‘rbu’ with reference to ICUMSA for Brazilian sugar, few understand its meaning. RBU, as used in this sense, means “Reference Base Units”. But to what it is referenced is the key. All major buyers such as Coca Cola etc have their own reference for this purpose. If you do not have a reference, or are not acceptable to the reference supplied by the refinery or SGS, then you would request sugar ICUMSA to be expressed in TU or ICUMSA Units. Which brings one to the methods used by the British Sugar Corporation – are you confused yet?
The buyer is best protected by having an understanding of the method used by the provider to obtain the proper product complying to the proper specification. Country of Origin specifications usually rule. These specifications are then detailed in the contract. VHP sugar is made by boiling the raw cane juice to concentrate it, allowing the sucrose crystals to crystallize in the solution, and then centrifuging the material. The products of the centrifugal process are VHP sugar, and molasses, which can be used for animal feeds or human health supplements depending on the grade of the product.
Traders should note that the term “INCUMSA” with an “N” is not a valid sugar trade term. (Also, it is interesting to see offers which include the words “Grade A”, which of course no sugar refinery or seller uses!)
a) I”N”CUMSA 45 rbu, followed on the next line by b) “COLOR: Sparkling White, etc”. Offers which we receive in this format go directly to File 13. I hope this helps. We have to stay in contact with SGS, BSC etc in order to keep up with all that is required”